Part 1 Vocabulary Selection
1[單選題]Human impact on climate is real, and there is_____in the scientific community.
Section 2 Reading Comprehension：
2[單選題]For more than 50 years, microbiologists in the U.S. and Europe have warned against using antibiotics to fatten up farm animals. The practice, they argue, threatens human health by turning farms into breeding grounds of drug-resistant bacteria. Farmers responded that restricting antibiotics in livestock would devastate the industry and significantly raise costs to consumers. We have empirical data that should resolve this debate. Since 1995, Denmark has enforced progressively tighter rules on the use of antibiotics in raising pigs, poultry and other livestock. In the process, it has shown that it’s possible to protect human health without hurting farmers.
Farmers in many countries use antibiotics in two key ways: (1) at full strength to treat sick animals and (2) in low doses to fatten meat-producing livestock or to prevent veterinary illnesses. Although even the proper use of antibiotics can inadvertently lead to the spread of drug-resistant bacteria, the habit of using a low or “sub-therapeutic” dose is a formula for disaster: the treatment provides just enough antibiotic to kill some but not all bacteria. The germs that survive are typically those that happen to bear genetic mutations for resisting the antibiotic. They then reproduce and exchange genes with other microbial resisters. Because bacteria are found literally everywhere, resistant strains produced in animals eventually find their way into people as well. You could hardly design a better system for guaranteeing the spread of antibiotic resistance.
The data from multiple studies over the years support the conclusion that low doses of antibiotics in animals increase the number of drug-resistant microbes in both animals and people. As Joshua M. Scharfstein, a principal deputy commissioner at the Food and Drug Administration, put it, “You actually can trace the specific bacteria around and ... find that the resistant strains in humans match the resistant strains in the animals.”And this science is what led Denmark to stop sub-therapeutic dosing of chickens，pigs and other farm animals.
Although the transition unfolded smoothly in the poultry industry, the average weight of pigs fell in the first year. But after Danish farmers started leaving piglets together with
their mothers a few weeks longer to bolster their immune systems naturally, the animals’ weights jumped back up, and the number of pigs per litter increased as well. The lesson is that improving animal husbandry — making sure that stalls and cages are properly cleaned and giving animals more room or time to mature — offsets the initial negative impact of limiting antibiotic use. Today Danish industry reports that productivity is higher than before. Meanwhile, reports of antibiotic resistance in Danish people are mixed, which shows — as if we needed reminding — that there are no quick fixes.
Of course, the way veterinary antibiotics are used is not the only cause of human drug- resistant infections. Careless use of the drugs in people also contributes to the problem. But agricultural use is still a major contributing factor. Every day brings new evidence that we are in danger of losing effective antibiotic protection against many of the most dangerous bacteria that cause human illness. The technical issues are solvable. Denmark’s example proves that it is possible to cut antibiotic use on farms without triggering financial disaster. In fact, it might provide a competitive advantage. Stronger measures to deprive drug-resistant bacteria of their agricultural breeding grounds simply make scientific，economic and common sense.
The last paragraph tells us that____ .
Aseveral factors cause human drug-resistant infections
Bpeople worry about the use of antibiotics in animals
Chuman beings are liable to be attacked by bacteria
Ddrug-resistant infections bring illnesses to humans
3[單選題]U.S.job growth was surprisingly strong in 2018, but don't expect that to happen again this year, with economic headwinds intensifying for the country and rest of the world.
The federal government’s final employment report for 2018 is forecast to show employers added 180,000 jobs in December to bring the annual increase to 2.45 million, the most since 2015 一 but the monthly estimate is the lowest median projection since last January.Economists surveyed by Bloomberg expect that to slow in 2019 to an average monthly pace of 156,000, for a total of 1.87 million, followed by 1.44 million in 2020, when President Trump is up for reelection.
Other key labor measures aren't expected to improve far beyond current levels by year end.Economists project the jobless rate held steady last month at 3.7%, the lowest since 1969, and will edge down to 3.5% at the end of 2019.Wage gains last month are expected to have eased to 3% year-over-year from a post-recession high of 3.1% and then modestly reaccelerate during the year.
The prospect of less-robust job growth is the latest in a slew of risks stacking up for the world's largest economy.It comes alongside warning signs from housing and manufacturing, among other industries, and projected weakening in both U.S.and global growth this year.A waning boost from Trump ,s tax cuts and government spending will add to policymakers? challenges.
“The economy accelerated in 2018 and employment with it for a pretty simple and obvious reason: We had a pretty big fiscal stimulus,M said Lewis Alexander, chief U.S.economist at Nomura Securities International.“The boost to growth from fiscal policy is not sustainable” he said, adding that he expects slowing of the economic expansion and employment growth.
Data released Thursday by the ADP Research Institute indicated that companies in December added the most workers to U.S.payrolls in almost two years.Private payrolls grew by 271,000, exceeding forecasts, after a downward-revised 157,000 advance in November.A Labor Department report Thursday showed filings for unemployment benefits rose to a four-week high of 231,000 in the week that ended Dec.29, exceeding the median estimate of economists in Bloomberg's survey.
Barclays sees payroll growth slowing from an average pace of about 200,000 a month last year to about 160,000 a month this year.“Our outlook for slower growth in activity in 2019 relative to last year on account of a smaller impulse from fiscal stimulus leads us to expect less employment growth this year,” chief U.S.economist Michael Gapen said in a note.The jobs report for November showed a payroll increase of 155,000, a tally that missed all estimates in Bloomberg's survey calling for a gain of 198,000.The same report revised the October reading down to 237,000, from 250,000.
Maintaining strength in hiring may depend on continued contributions in key sectors such as manufacturing, which even before the December figures had added more jobs than any year since 1997.A Labor Department report due out Friday is forecast to show factory jobs rose by 20,000, which would bring the full-year increase to 269,000.Mining and natural resources jobs are within reach of their best gain since 2011, and construction is holding up.For private services jobs, more than half the 1.68 million hires on the books for 2018 have been in education and health services, and professional and business services.
Federal Reserve policymakers have stayed sanguine on the labor market, with Chairman Jerome Powell noting that increasing tightness should help keep inflation around the central bank's 2% objective.Fed officials at their final 2018 meeting kept their end- of-2019 jobless rate forecast at 3.5%.
But as downbeat reports stack up, pressure increases on the Fed to signal a pause on interest-rate increases.Policymakers have said they intend to slow the pace of hikes this year.As they raised rates in December, they penciled in just two hikes for 2019, the median projection of governors and district presidents shows.That’s still more than many investors anticipate, with rate futures pointing to no moves in 2019 and a potential rate cut next year.
What does the author possibly mean by using “a waning boost” underlined in Paragraph 4?
ATrump's tax cuts and government spending can boost job growth.
BTrump's tax cuts and government spending can no longer give strong impetus to job growth.
CTrump's tax cuts and government spending have a striking effect on global growth.
DTrump's tax cuts and government spending will add strength to U.S.economy.
Part 2 Vocabulary Replacement
4[單選題]It would be only a matter of time before it was proven definitively, especially with the BYU people already claiming to have some independent evidence.
5[單選題]The restaurant features a wide-open kitchen surrounded by wooden counters on three sides, where a brigade of assiduous chefs with white caps work in assembly-line fashion.
6[單選題]A public health approach first and foremost requires meticulous collection and tracking of data.